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Glossary of Real Estate Research Terms

ABSORPTION PERIOD
The number of months necessary to rent a specific number of units. If over 12 months, the absorption period is adjusted to reflect replacement for turnover (see aggregate absorption and net absorption).
ABSORPTION RATE
The number of units expected to be rented per month.
AESTHETIC AMENITIES (CURBSIDE APPEAL)
Used as part of the ccomparability rating, this factor assigns a point rating to a project's physical appeal to potential tenants. Included in this rating are an evaluation of grounds appearance and landscaping, quality of maintenance, and quality of architecture and design.
AGGREGATE ABSORPTION
The total number of units absorbed by a subject site without accounting for turnover.
COMPARABLE MARKET RENT
The amount a potential renter would expect to pay for the subject unit without income restrictions given current and projected market conditions. Comparable market rent is based on a regression analysis for the market area. Factors influencing a property’s potential to achieve the comparable market rent include the number of units at that rent, the step-up base at that rent level and the age and condition of the property and its competitors.
COMPARABILITY INDEX
A factor used to determine the relative competitiveness of any given multifamily project. This index is established based on a scale developed by The Danter Company that assigns point values to a project's unit amenities, project amenities, and overall aesthetic rating (curbside appeal).
CONTRACT RENT
See street rent.
COOPERATIVE
a type of multifamily housing in which each household is part-owner of the community. A cooperative will usually involve a purchase or "buy-in" of the unit, and decisions affecting the community are typically made by majority votes of unit holders. Unit holders also share in the project’s equity. Government subsidized units typically involve very low cost buy-ins and low rents geared towards low-income households.
DENSITY
The number of units per acre.
ECONOMIC VACANCY
An existing unit that is not collecting book rent. Economic vacancies include manager's units, model units, units undergoing renovation, units being prepared for occupancy, and units being discounted. The Danter Company determines vacancies based on a market vacancy standard (see vacancy).
EFFECTIVE MARKET AREA (EMA)SM
The geographic area from which a proposed development is expected to draw between 60% and 70% of its support. Also the area from which an existing project actually draws 60% to 70% of its support. An EMA is determined based on the area's demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, mobility patterns, and existing geographic features (i.e. a river, mountain, or freeway).
EMPTY-NESTER
An older adult (age 55 or over). Typically, households in this age group contain no children under 18.
ENTRY IMPACT
A prospective tenant's perception of a unit's spaciousness on entering a unit; a first impression.
EXTERNAL MOBILITY
Households moving to an area from well outside a market area.
FAIR MARKET RENT
The maximum chargeable gross rent in an area for projects participating in the HUD Section 8 program. Determined by HUD.
FIELD SURVEY
The process of visiting existing developments as part of the information-gathering process. Each project listed in this survey has been visited on-site by an analyst employed by The Danter Company, unless specified otherwise. Also the name of the section detailing information gathered during the field trip.
FmHA
Farmers Home Administration, former name for RD. See RD.
GARDEN UNIT
A multifamily unit with living and sleeping space all on a single floor. May be in a multistory building.
GOVERNMENT SUBSIDIZED
Units for which all or part of the rent or operating expenses are paid for directly by a government agency. Government subsidy programs include HUD Sections 8 and 236, RHS Section 515, and other programs sponsored by local housing authorities or agencies. Typically, tenants are charged a percentage of their income (usually 30%) as rent if they are unable to pay the full cost of a unit.
GROSS RENT
Rent paid for a unit adjusted to include all utilities.
HISTORIC TAX CREDIT
Program which gives income tax credits to investors who restore old or historic buildings in designated areas. This is a separate program from the low-income housing Tax Credit program (see Tax Credit).
HUD
The United States Department of Housing and Urban Development. The primary agency for sponsoring subsidized housing in the United States, particularly in urban areas.
HOUSING CHOICE VOUCHER
A government subsidized housing program administered by local public housing agencies through which income-qualified tenants can use government subsidies to reside at any project which meets certain qualifications. Qualified households pay 30% of adjusted income or 10% of gross income, whichever is greater. Government subsidies pay the housing unit owner the difference between what the qualified household pays and the area Payment Standard. Voucher holders may choose housing that rents for more than the area Payment Standard, but they will be responsible for paying the difference between the charged rent and the Payment Standard
INTERNAL MOBILITY
Households moving within the same market area.
MARKET-DRIVEN RENT
The rent for a unit with a given ccomparability rating as determined by the regression analysis.
MARKET VACANCY
See vacancy.
MAXIMUM ALLOWABLE INCOME
The highest income a household can make and be eligible for the Tax Credit program. The maximum allowable income is set at 60% of the area's median household income unless otherwise noted.
MEDIAN RENT
The midpoint in the range of rents for a unit type at which exactly half of the units have higher rents and half have lower rents.
MSA
Metropolitan Statistical Area. Denotes an area associated with an urban area. MSA determinations are made by the Census Bureau based on population and interaction. Nonurban areas included in an MSA are marked by a high rate of commuting and interaction. MSA boundaries are particularly important in determining maximum allowable rents for Tax Credit development (see PMSA).
NET ABSORPTION
The total number of units absorbed when accounting for turnover.
NET RENT
The rent paid by a tenant adjusted to assume that the landlord pays for water/sewer service and trash removal and that the tenant pays all other utilities.
100% DATABASE
When The Danter Company conducts a field survey, we gather data on all (100%) of the modern apartments in an EMA. This methodology allows us to examine the market at all price and amenity levels in order to determine step-up support and to use a regression analysis to determine market-driven rent for any given amenity level.
PMSA
Primary Metropolitan Statistical Area. Used for Metropolitan Statistical Areas that have been combined with other adjacent MSAs into a larger Consolidated MSA. Each PMSA is defined in the same manner as a standard MSA (see MSA).
PROJECT AMENITY
An amenity that is available for all residents of a community. Project amenities include laundry facilities, swimming pools, clubhouses, exercise rooms, playgrounds, etc.
RADIAL ANALYSIS
An analysis focusing on the area within a set distance of a site (usually 1, 3, 5, or 10 miles). Such analyses usually disregard mobility patterns, geographic boundaries, or differences in socioeconomic characteristics which separate one area from another.
RD
Rural Development. Formerly Farmers Home Administration. The primary agency of the federal government for overseeing government subsidized housing programs in rural areas, primarily through its Section 515 program.
REGRESSION ANALYSIS
A mathematical analysis in which each project surveyed is plotted on a scatter diagram using rent by unit type and the project's ccomparability rating. From this graph a regression line is identified which identifies the market-driven rent at any given ccomparability rating level.
RENT GAP
The difference in price between a unit type and the next-largest unit type. For example, at a project where one-bedroom units rent for $350 and two-bedroom units rent at $425, the rent gap is $75. May also be used to identify premium rents or special amenities.
REPLACEMENT ABSORPTION
The number of tenants necessary for a project to attract to counteract the number of tenants who chose to break or not renew their lease.
STEP-UP SUPPORT (OR STEP-UP BASE)
The number of multifamily units existing within the EMA with rents within a specified dollar amount below the proposed rents at a proposed multifamily site. Step-up support is calculated separately for each unit type proposed, and may include units of another, smaller unit type (for example, step-up support for proposed one-bedroom units may include not only one-bedroom units but also studio units).
STEP-DOWN SUPPORT
The number of units within a given unit type and ccomparability rating level but with rents above the proposed rent. This total measures the number of tenants in a market who may be willing to move to a new project that provides a similar or higher level of quality at a lower rent.
STREET RENT
The rent quoted by a leasing agent or manager to a prospective tenant, regardless of the utilities included. Also called contract rent.
TAX CREDIT
Short for the low-income housing Tax Credit program (LIHTC) or IRS Section 42. This program gives investors the opportunity to gain tax credits for investing in multifamily housing for low- to moderate-income households meeting certain income restrictions. This designation does not refer to the historic Tax Credit program (see historic tax credit).
TOWNHOUSE UNIT
A multifamily unit with a floor plan of two or more floors. Typically, townhouse floor plans living areas and sleeping areas on different floors.
TURNOVER
Units whose tenants choose to break or not renew their lease.
UNIT AMENITIES
Amenities available within an individual unit, or only to individual tenants. For example, a detached garage and external storage are considered unit amenities because they are generally available only to individual tenants.
UNIT TYPE
Based on the number of bedrooms: studio, one-bedroom, two-bedroom, etc.
UPPER-QUARTILE RENTS
The rent range including the 25% of units at the high end of the range scale.
UTILITY ALLOWANCE
Adjustment for utilities not included in the rent in the Tax Credit program. The adjustment is used to keep proposed rents within gross rent guidelines of the program. It is also used to adjust gross rents to compare with area net rents.
VACANCY
As used by The Danter Company, a vacancy is a multifamily unit available for immediate occupancy. Manager's units and model units are not counted as vacant units, nor are units that are unrentable due to excessive damage or renovation. This definition of vacancy is often referred to as a market vacancy and is different from an economic vacancy (see economic vacancy).
VOUCHER
See Housing Choice Voucher.

SM - Service Mark of The Danter Company

 
 
   

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